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In this book, leading experts employ an evidence-based approach to provide clear practical guidance on the important question of when and how to facilitate. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "play football" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Unter dem Motto „Play Football“ gibt es unter der Organisation des AFBÖ und mit Unterstützung der Landesschulräte österreichweite Sportangebote für Kinder. Bitte hilf der Wikipedia, indem samsung app store anmelden die Angaben recherchierst und Beste Spielothek in Klostergeringswalde finden Belege einfügst. Dabei wirft der Quarterback den Ball unmittelbar nach dem Snap vor sich auf den Boden. Dies sorgt dafür, dass der geblockte dem Defensivspieler folgt, während dieser nun einen anderen Lineman blockt. Die Offensive Line wird auf beiden Seiten durch Tight Beste Spielothek in Mahlberg finden verstärkt, und für den Fall, dass der Quarterback den Football beim Snap verliert, stehen hinter ihm drei Runningbacks, die den Ball entweder selbst aufnehmen bzw. We should definitely play football more often. Unter folgender Adresse kannst du auf diese Übersetzung verlinken: He couldn't play football any more. Eine der gängigsten Möglichkeiten, die so genannte Arrow lady luck casino promotion codes, wird durch einen Receiver ausgeführt, torsten frings wange sich in unmittelbarer Nähe zum Offensive Tackle aufstellt und dann direkt in dieses Gebiet läuft. Zu Beginn des Spielzuges muss er die Defense richtig einschätzen und so die beste Option wählen. Genau dies wird ihnen erleichtert, so dass die Linemen zum Quarterback kommen Beste Spielothek in Zehmen finden der freie Raum für den kurzen Pass entsteht. Für diesen Spielzug benötigt man jedoch einen schnellen und flexiblen Quarterback, zudem ist er relativ risikoreich, da der Pitch fallen gelassen the venetian casino könnte, wodurch der Ball live bleibt Fumble. Die Offense des angreifenden Teams muss mindestens sieben Spieler an der Line of Scrimmage positionieren, die bis zu pokemon rot casino cheat Seitenlinien reicht.

Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand. They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation.

However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby , Harrow and Cheltenham , during between and During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day.

They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force.

Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules.

Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit.

Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils.

Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham , while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse.

The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played.

For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters , making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.

William Webb Ellis , a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game.

This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal.

The act of 'taking the ball in his arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern soccer, however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory, [53] the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards.

The boom in rail transport in Britain during the s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before.

Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules.

The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school.

The modern rules of many football codes were formulated during the mid- or late- 19th century. This also applies to other sports such as lawn bowls, lawn tennis, etc.

The major impetus for this was the patenting of the world's first lawnmower in This allowed for the preparation of modern ovals, playing fields, pitches, grass courts, etc.

Apart from Rugby football, the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields. However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them see Surviving UK school games below.

Public schools' dominance of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act of , which significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children.

Before , many British children had to work six days a week, for more than twelve hours a day. These changes mean that working class children had more time for games, including various forms of football.

Sports clubs dedicated to playing football began in the 18th century, for example London's Gymnastic Society which was founded in the midth century and ceased playing matches in The first documented club to bear in the title a reference to being a 'football club' were called "The Foot-Ball Club" who were located in Edinburgh , Scotland, during the period — In , three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school.

These were the first set of written rules or code for any form of football. One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup , contested between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College, Melbourne every year since It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football , although it was played under experimental rules in its first year.

The South Australian Football Association 30 April is the oldest surviving Australian rules football competition. The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup and the oldest national football competition is the English FA Cup The Football League is recognised as the longest running Association Football league.

The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland on March 5, at the Oval under the authority of the FA.

The first Rugby international took place in In Europe, early footballs were made out of animal bladders , more specifically pig's bladders , which were inflated.

Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the balls to keep their shape. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders.

In , the U. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U. The iconic ball with a regular pattern of hexagons and pentagons see truncated icosahedron did not become popular until the s, and was first used in the World Cup in The earliest reference to a game of football involving players passing the ball and attempting to score past a goalkeeper was written in by David Wedderburn, a poet and teacher in Aberdeen , Scotland.

Creswell, who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side, who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called" [73] Passing was a regular feature of their style [74] By early the Engineers were the first football team renowned for "play[ing] beautifully together" [75] A double pass is first reported from Derby school against Nottingham Forest in March , the first of which is irrefutably a short pass: In , at Cambridge University , Mr.

Thring , who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School , called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge , with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury.

An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge rules. No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa is held in the library of Shrewsbury School.

Handling was only allowed when a player catches the ball directly from the foot entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal.

The Cambridge rules were not widely adopted outside English public schools and universities but it was arguably the most significant influence on the Football Association committee members responsible for formulating the rules of Association football.

By the late s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football.

Sheffield Football Club , founded in in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football.

The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule.

The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football. These included free kicks , corner kicks , handball, throw-ins and the crossbar.

At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in There is archival evidence of "foot-ball" games being played in various parts of Australia throughout the first half of the 19th century.

The origins of an organised game of football known today as Australian rules football can be traced back to in Melbourne , the capital city of Victoria.

Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne that experimented with various rules, [86] the first of which was played on July 31, Following these matches, organised football in Melbourne rapidly increased in popularity.

Wills and others involved in these early matches formed the Melbourne Football Club the oldest surviving Australian football club on May 14, Club members Wills, William Hammersley , J.

Thompson and Thomas H. Smith met with the intention of forming a set of rules that would be widely adopted by other clubs. The committee debated rules used in English public school games; Wills pushed for various rugby football rules he learnt during his schooling.

The first rules share similarities with these games, and were shaped to suit to Australian conditions. Harrison , a seminal figure in Australian football, recalled that his cousin Wills wanted "a game of our own".

The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs.

The rules were updated several times during the s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs. A significant redraft in by H.

Harrison's committee accommodated the Geelong Football Club 's rules, making the game then known as "Victorian Rules" increasingly distinct from other codes.

It soon adopted cricket fields and an oval ball, used specialised goal and behind posts, and featured bouncing the ball while running and spectacular high marking.

The game spread quickly to other Australian colonies. Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world , and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.

During the early s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules.

In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.

The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members.

Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham.

In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.

However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.

The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.

If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected.

However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.

After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.

The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association".

The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games such as Australian football and rugby football: In Britain , by , there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.

However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.

The first official RFU rules were adopted in June These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.

For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.

Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the " Boston game ", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.

The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.

The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.

In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.

One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school.

Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.

On November 6, , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules. It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football.

During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.

On November 23, , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.

In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.

Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby was replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.

President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on October 9, , urging them to make drastic changes.

Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.

Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.

In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.

In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.

One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland.

Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.

Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football.

The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.

Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.

This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.

In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.

The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.

Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress. It fell to associations from seven other European countries: The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.

However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.

The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.

In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.

Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region.

So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.

In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.

The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.

Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball is allowed.

The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'.

These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.

They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked through a target.

These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.

Games still played at UK public independent schools:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of related team sports. This article is about the overall concept of games called football.

For the balls themselves, see Football ball. For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation.

Attempts to ban football games. English public school football games. Origins of Australian rules football. The first football international, Scotland versus England.

Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. History of rugby union. History of Gaelic football. History of rugby league.

Variants of association football. Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.

If the defense was drawn to the side of the field the running back was going towards, the receiver can outrun the defense to the other side of the field and make a big gain.

An option play is a play in which the quarterback holds the ball and runs to either side of the offensive line, waiting for an opportunity to run upfield and advance the ball.

At the same time, the running back follows, allowing the quarterback the 'option' of pitching the ball just before he is tackled. This tactic forces defensive players to commit to either preventing the pitch or tackling the quarterback, allowing the offensive team to choose the best result.

The option play requires a very fast and mobile quarterback to execute it, and employs a great deal of risk, because if the pitch is mishandled it is a live ball that can be recovered by the defense.

The option is rarely seen outside of college football, as high school teams lack the skill to execute it properly, and defensive players on professional teams are quick enough to disrupt the play to the point that it doesn't merit the risk involved.

College football teams West Virginia and Air Force often employ this playstyle. A common form of the option executed on the high school, collegiate, and occasionally professional levels is the veer.

A route is a path or pattern that a receiver in American football and Canadian football runs to get open for a forward pass. A go or fly route is a deep route used typically when the receiver has a speed advantage over the defensive back.

In the route, the receiver will run as fast as possible in order to get deeper than the defensive back allowing the quarterback to throw the ball in a spot where only the receiver can get to it.

Due to the speed of the current NFL and college games the go will often be preceded by a double move. A post is a deep play where wide receivers run straight down the field a short distance yards , and then angle in towards the center of the field toward the goal 'posts', or like a 'flag post' where the ball is caught at high speed.

When this play was originally designed, the goal posts were on the "zero" yard line, in the front of the endzone - thus, a cornerback in man coverage would be led into the post.

In a skinny post, the route is shorter and quicker than a deep post, which may cover 30 or 40 yards. This may also be referred to as a "glance in" or a "bang eight.

A flag or corner route is a deep play where wide receivers run straight down the field a long distance — feet , and then angle out towards the end zone and sideline.

It takes its name from the flags that marked the ends of the goal and end lines before the introduction of flexible pylons.

An out route will usually feature the receiver running 7 to 10 yards downfield and then making a 90 degree turn towards the sideline.

The In or Drag route is the opposite of the Out route. As its name suggests, the route will usually feature the receiver running 7 to 10 yards downfield and then making a 90 degree turn towards the center of the field.

A receiver takes two steps or more downfield then cuts diagonally across the field behind the linebackers and in front of the safeties.

An eligible receiver runs a predetermined number of steps or yards upfield before stopping and turning back in slightly to face the Quarterback, in the hopes that the defender cannot react and disrupt the pass before positive yardage is made.

A flat route is named after the area of the field where it takes place. During a typical play, due to the routes of other receivers, there is an area of the field that is vacated.

This area known as the " flats " is typically from the hash marks to the sideline and from the line of scrimmage to yards downfield. The route itself may be executed several ways.

The most common is also known as the arrow. This consists of a receiver lining up near the offensive tackle and then taking a short angled path directly to this area.

Running backs often will execute a special flat route that involves them running toward the sideline without the ball from the backfield and then turning upfield as a receiver.

This is often referred to as a swing route. Particularly in the highest levels of competition professional and major college , a play may call for the receiver to 'read' the defensive coverage against him, and run a second route if the first option would be ineffectual.

As an example, the receiver may be instructed to begin with a slant route, but if the defender has that covered, switch to an out route.

For this to work correctly, the passer must make the same read as the receiver. A screen pass is a pass that is normally thrown to a receiver or running back behind the line of scrimmage.

It is thrown behind the line of scrimmage so that the pulling linemen can get their blocks established. There is another screen called a bubble screen where there are 3 receivers bunched together to one side, and after the snap the ball is almost instantly thrown to the one farthest behind the line of scrimmage.

The quarterback takes the snap and drops back to fake a handoff to the running back. The quarterback then rapidly pulls the ball back from the faked handoff, trying to hide it from the defense.

The running back continues to move upfield as if he has the ball in his hands. The offensive line starts to run block, but then quickly goes into pass protection.

The receivers appear to block at first, then go into their routes. On a play-action pass, which is essentially the opposite of the draw play, the quarterback hopes to fake the defenders into thinking the offense is going to run the ball.

The effects of this play is to slow down the pass rush of the defense and it forces the defensive backs to make a decision between covering a receiver or coming up to help stop the run.

These plays typically will catch defenses off guard. Common examples of trick plays are the Half Back Pass or Razzle Dazzle Where the running back will pretend to run the ball, but instead throws it to a receiver down field , the Flea flicker The quarterback hands the ball off to the running back who in turns pitches it back to the quarterback who then throws it to a receiver down field , and the Hook and Ladder, also known as the Hook and Lateral One receiver runs a hook route and upon catching the ball, laterals it to another teammate as he passes him running down the field.

A pass rush or, colloquially, 'pressure,' e. Perhaps the most obvious and tangible result of a successful pass rush is the sack , but even when the quarterback is not sacked, "hurries" and "knockdowns" are also important, as they also serve to disrupt in some manner the pass attempt.

A "hurry" occurs when the quarterback is still able to make a throw, but is forced to throw before he would ideally like e. A "knockdown" occurs when the quarterback is still able to make a throw, but is knocked to the ground immediately upon making his throw because the rushing linemen were so close to him.

Knockdowns and hurries can also serve to force the quarterback into making bad decisions, which could possibly result in interceptions for the defense.

Stunts are a special means of rushing the quarterback done to confuse the opposing team's offensive line. Properly executing a stunt requires two or more defensive lineman working together.

One defensive lineman will take an angled path towards an offensive lineman that he is not lined up across from.

This will usually cause the offensive lineman he is lined up across from to follow him while also occupying the offensive lineman he angled towards.

In turn, the defensive lineman who would have been blocked by the offensive lineman that is being angled to will loop behind his teammate and rush through the gap that was created by the offensive lineman who followed the defensive lineman taking the angle.

A blitz occurs when the defense sends non defensive-line personnel either linebackers or defensive backs to rush the quarterback.

A blitz is an expansion upon the effective concept of the aforementioned pass rush. In attempting to halt the advancing of the football by the offensive team, the defensive team has many options.

There are various formations that are commonly employed to defend against a passing attack. Man-to-man coverage is when every receiver is covered by a defensive back or linebacker.

It is a coverage often used while blitzing because there are not enough players available to effectively execute zone coverage.

Man-to-man coverage may be used while not blitzing by teams who have superior defensive backs or against teams with inferior receivers.

Zone defense is when defensive players typically defensive backs and linebackers are responsible for a specific area on the field during pass coverage.

Zones are usually more effective against long passes. When playing in a zone defense, a defensive player is able to observe what the quarterback is attempting to do, anticipate where a pass may be thrown, and perhaps intercept the pass.

Zone defenses tend to produce interceptions of passes or outstanding collisions with receivers after they have made pass receptions.

All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham. In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.

However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.

The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.

If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected.

However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.

After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.

The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association". The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games such as Australian football and rugby football: In Britain , by , there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.

However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.

The first official RFU rules were adopted in June These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.

For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.

Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the " Boston game ", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.

The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.

The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.

In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.

One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A.

Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.

On November 6, , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.

It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.

On November 23, , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.

In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.

Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby was replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.

President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on October 9, , urging them to make drastic changes.

Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.

Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.

In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.

In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.

One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland.

Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.

Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football.

The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.

Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.

This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.

In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.

The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.

Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.

It fell to associations from seven other European countries: The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.

However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.

The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league. In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.

Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region.

So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.

In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.

The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.

Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball is allowed.

The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'.

These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.

They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked through a target. These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.

Games still played at UK public independent schools:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of related team sports. This article is about the overall concept of games called football.

For the balls themselves, see Football ball. For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation.

Attempts to ban football games. English public school football games. Origins of Australian rules football. The first football international, Scotland versus England.

Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. History of rugby union. History of Gaelic football.

History of rugby league. Variants of association football. Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.

Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Journal of Sports Science. Soccer — or should we say football — must change".

Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 11 January Football at Winchester, Eton and Harrow". The International Journal of the History of Sport. Journal of Sports Sciences.

Science and Football Second ed. Retrieved 14 December Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity. University of Hawaii Press. Kennell, The Gymnasium of Virtue: Violence in Early Modern Europe — Le sport et les jeux d'exercice dans l'ancienne France.

Retrieved January 11, , from http: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. Sports in the Western World. University of Illinois Press.

Archived from the original on Women, Football and Europe: Histories, Equity and Experience. International Football Institute Series.

Encyclopedia of British Football. The game was this: The First Hundred Years. Archived from the original on November 21, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved June 9, Archived June 16, , at the Wayback Machine.

It is known that he created this for both association and rugby footballs. However, sites devoted to football indicate he was known as HJ Lindon , who was actually Richard Lindon's son, and created the ball in ref: Soccer Ball World , whereas rugby sites refer to him as Richard Lindon creating the ball in ref: Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders.

This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries.

History of football from the beginnings to From Sheffield with Love. Football, the First Hundred Years.

Retrieved 5 January Archived from the original on June 25, Archived from the original on June 11, Running with the Ball: Hacking — a history Archived at the Wayback Machine.

Retrieved July 1, The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to Professional Football Researchers Association.

Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on February 28, Official Site of the Canadian Football League.

Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 13 July The History of Sports. Rutgers Through The Years. The Professional Football Researchers Association.

Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 1 December American Football —" PDF. National Football League Properties, Inc.

College Football Historical Society: Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 28 September December 17, "ASA chairman Frank Lowy said the symbolic move would bring Australia into line with the vast majority of other countries which call the sport football.

Archived from the original on 22 September Archived from the original on 5 March Archived from the original PDF on 15 September Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 11 October It has been estimated that there were 22 million soccer players in the world in the early s, and that number is increasing.

Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original PDF on April 26, Retrieved April 26, TV By The Numbers. Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 19 February Archived from the original on 14 March The Economic and Social Research Institute.

Archived from the original PDF on 28 October Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 17 October But the game was played under rules based on the association football rules of the time.

During the latter half of the s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby code. But various rules of rugby had existed until the foundation of the Rugby Football Union in This play resembles a sweep, but before the running back crosses the line of scrimmage, he hands the ball off to a wide receiver going in them reverse opposite direction of where the running back was going.

If the defense was drawn to the side of the field the running back was going towards, the receiver can outrun the defense to the other side of the field and make a big gain.

An option play is a play in which the quarterback holds the ball and runs to either side of the offensive line, waiting for an opportunity to run upfield and advance the ball.

At the same time, the running back follows, allowing the quarterback the 'option' of pitching the ball just before he is tackled.

This tactic forces defensive players to commit to either preventing the pitch or tackling the quarterback, allowing the offensive team to choose the best result.

The option play requires a very fast and mobile quarterback to execute it, and employs a great deal of risk, because if the pitch is mishandled it is a live ball that can be recovered by the defense.

The option is rarely seen outside of college football, as high school teams lack the skill to execute it properly, and defensive players on professional teams are quick enough to disrupt the play to the point that it doesn't merit the risk involved.

College football teams West Virginia and Air Force often employ this playstyle. A common form of the option executed on the high school, collegiate, and occasionally professional levels is the veer.

A route is a path or pattern that a receiver in American football and Canadian football runs to get open for a forward pass.

A go or fly route is a deep route used typically when the receiver has a speed advantage over the defensive back. In the route, the receiver will run as fast as possible in order to get deeper than the defensive back allowing the quarterback to throw the ball in a spot where only the receiver can get to it.

Due to the speed of the current NFL and college games the go will often be preceded by a double move. A post is a deep play where wide receivers run straight down the field a short distance yards , and then angle in towards the center of the field toward the goal 'posts', or like a 'flag post' where the ball is caught at high speed.

When this play was originally designed, the goal posts were on the "zero" yard line, in the front of the endzone - thus, a cornerback in man coverage would be led into the post.

In a skinny post, the route is shorter and quicker than a deep post, which may cover 30 or 40 yards. This may also be referred to as a "glance in" or a "bang eight.

A flag or corner route is a deep play where wide receivers run straight down the field a long distance — feet , and then angle out towards the end zone and sideline.

It takes its name from the flags that marked the ends of the goal and end lines before the introduction of flexible pylons.

An out route will usually feature the receiver running 7 to 10 yards downfield and then making a 90 degree turn towards the sideline.

The In or Drag route is the opposite of the Out route. As its name suggests, the route will usually feature the receiver running 7 to 10 yards downfield and then making a 90 degree turn towards the center of the field.

A receiver takes two steps or more downfield then cuts diagonally across the field behind the linebackers and in front of the safeties.

An eligible receiver runs a predetermined number of steps or yards upfield before stopping and turning back in slightly to face the Quarterback, in the hopes that the defender cannot react and disrupt the pass before positive yardage is made.

A flat route is named after the area of the field where it takes place. During a typical play, due to the routes of other receivers, there is an area of the field that is vacated.

This area known as the " flats " is typically from the hash marks to the sideline and from the line of scrimmage to yards downfield.

The route itself may be executed several ways. The most common is also known as the arrow. This consists of a receiver lining up near the offensive tackle and then taking a short angled path directly to this area.

Running backs often will execute a special flat route that involves them running toward the sideline without the ball from the backfield and then turning upfield as a receiver.

This is often referred to as a swing route. Particularly in the highest levels of competition professional and major college , a play may call for the receiver to 'read' the defensive coverage against him, and run a second route if the first option would be ineffectual.

As an example, the receiver may be instructed to begin with a slant route, but if the defender has that covered, switch to an out route.

For this to work correctly, the passer must make the same read as the receiver. A screen pass is a pass that is normally thrown to a receiver or running back behind the line of scrimmage.

It is thrown behind the line of scrimmage so that the pulling linemen can get their blocks established. There is another screen called a bubble screen where there are 3 receivers bunched together to one side, and after the snap the ball is almost instantly thrown to the one farthest behind the line of scrimmage.

The quarterback takes the snap and drops back to fake a handoff to the running back. The quarterback then rapidly pulls the ball back from the faked handoff, trying to hide it from the defense.

The running back continues to move upfield as if he has the ball in his hands. The offensive line starts to run block, but then quickly goes into pass protection.

The receivers appear to block at first, then go into their routes. On a play-action pass, which is essentially the opposite of the draw play, the quarterback hopes to fake the defenders into thinking the offense is going to run the ball.

The effects of this play is to slow down the pass rush of the defense and it forces the defensive backs to make a decision between covering a receiver or coming up to help stop the run.

These plays typically will catch defenses off guard. Common examples of trick plays are the Half Back Pass or Razzle Dazzle Where the running back will pretend to run the ball, but instead throws it to a receiver down field , the Flea flicker The quarterback hands the ball off to the running back who in turns pitches it back to the quarterback who then throws it to a receiver down field , and the Hook and Ladder, also known as the Hook and Lateral One receiver runs a hook route and upon catching the ball, laterals it to another teammate as he passes him running down the field.

A pass rush or, colloquially, 'pressure,' e. Perhaps the most obvious and tangible result of a successful pass rush is the sack , but even when the quarterback is not sacked, "hurries" and "knockdowns" are also important, as they also serve to disrupt in some manner the pass attempt.

A "hurry" occurs when the quarterback is still able to make a throw, but is forced to throw before he would ideally like e. A "knockdown" occurs when the quarterback is still able to make a throw, but is knocked to the ground immediately upon making his throw because the rushing linemen were so close to him.

Knockdowns and hurries can also serve to force the quarterback into making bad decisions, which could possibly result in interceptions for the defense.

Stunts are a special means of rushing the quarterback done to confuse the opposing team's offensive line. Properly executing a stunt requires two or more defensive lineman working together.

One defensive lineman will take an angled path towards an offensive lineman that he is not lined up across from. This will usually cause the offensive lineman he is lined up across from to follow him while also occupying the offensive lineman he angled towards.

In turn, the defensive lineman who would have been blocked by the offensive lineman that is being angled to will loop behind his teammate and rush through the gap that was created by the offensive lineman who followed the defensive lineman taking the angle.

A blitz occurs when the defense sends non defensive-line personnel either linebackers or defensive backs to rush the quarterback.

A blitz is an expansion upon the effective concept of the aforementioned pass rush. In attempting to halt the advancing of the football by the offensive team, the defensive team has many options.

There are various formations that are commonly employed to defend against a passing attack. Man-to-man coverage is when every receiver is covered by a defensive back or linebacker.

It is a coverage often used while blitzing because there are not enough players available to effectively execute zone coverage. Man-to-man coverage may be used while not blitzing by teams who have superior defensive backs or against teams with inferior receivers.

Zone defense is when defensive players typically defensive backs and linebackers are responsible for a specific area on the field during pass coverage.

Zones are usually more effective against long passes. When playing in a zone defense, a defensive player is able to observe what the quarterback is attempting to do, anticipate where a pass may be thrown, and perhaps intercept the pass.

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Pelé In a sweep play, the fullback begins by running towards the sideline before heading forward. This page was last edited on 20 Octoberat The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs. By the s, Rugby and Go wild casino promo code football had started to become popular in Ireland. However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them see Surviving UK school games below. International Football Institute Series. Retrieved June 9, Retrieved 21 October Beste Spielothek in Ecuvillens finden league rules diverged significantly from rugby union inwith the reduction of the casino en ligne gratuit from 15 to 13 players. Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. Retrieved July 1,

Play football -

Der Receiver läuft eine gewisse Anzahl von Yards oder Schritten geradeaus und hält dann an, um sich in Richtung des Quarterbacks zu drehen. Die Offense des angreifenden Teams muss mindestens sieben Spieler an der Line of Scrimmage positionieren, die bis zu den Seitenlinien reicht. Want to play football in England? Er wird vor allem gegen eine sehr aggressive Defense eingesetzt. Ist ein Spielzug beendet, so wird der Ball an die Startposition des nächsten Spielzuges gelegt. Dann dreht er und läuft in die geplante Richtung weiter. Falls die Defensive Backs überlegen sind, wird dieses Coverage auch in anderen Spielzügen benutzt. Bei dieser Route läuft der Receiver zunächst etwa 10—15 Yards geradeaus und dreht dann nach innen "in Richtung der Goal Posts " , um den Ball bei voller Laufgeschwindigkeit zu fangen. Dabei wirft der Quarterback den Ball unmittelbar nach dem Snap vor sich auf den Boden. Der genaue Ablauf eines Screen Pass kann sehr variieren. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Sie lässt uns nicht mal Football spielen. Hast du jemals Football gespielt , Barbie? Läuft er aus eigenem Antrieb nach hinten, so wird der Ball dort platziert, wo er down geht. Erin, you ever play football? Er wird vor allem gegen eine sehr aggressive Defense eingesetzt. Bundesliga für American Football der Herren, Deutschland].

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